|Statement||Edited by R.J.C. Harris.|
|Series||UICC monograph series,, v. 2, UICC monograph series ;, v. 2.|
|Contributions||Harris, R. J. C. 1922- ed., International Union against Cancer., Akademii͡a︡ medit͡s︡inskikh nauk SSSR.|
|LC Classifications||RC261 .A372 1967|
|The Physical Object|
|Number of Pages||366|
|LC Control Number||67105433|
Tumor-Specific Antigens and Tumor-Specific Mutant Proteins in Mouse and Man * H. Schreiber, H. Koeppen, and P.L. Ward A. Introduction The modern era of cancer immunology began with the discovery that inbred mice could be immunized against cancers that had been induced by chemical car cinogens such as the polycyclic hydrocar. Tumor antigens, includ-ing tissue-specific antigens, cancer-testis antigens, and over-ex-pressed antigens in tumor cells, can be isolated using various mRNA/cDNA subtraction methods among various normal tis-Table 1. Model situations that we have examined for the identifica-tion of tumor antigens relevant to immunological tumor rejectionCited by: tumour antigens; antigen specific T cell response; Spontaneous immune responses against human tumours have been reported in different types of cancer, especially in melanoma and renal cell carcinoma, 1, 2 but also in other types of cancer, such as non-small cell lung cancer, bladder carcinoma, and breast cancer, indicating the specific interaction of the immune system with antigenic Cited by: Antigen expressed by tumor cells, but not by normal cells. Truly specific tumor antigens are generated by oncogenic genetic lesions, such as mutations in oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes, or chromosomal rearrangements leading to the synthesis of fusion proteins.
self-tumor antigens, current antigen-specific immuno- therapies for tumors are far less satisfied than expected, which reflects the urgent need to improve our understanding on self-tumor antigens. In order to develop effective antigen specific anti-tumor immunotherapies and to monitor the responses to these immunotherapies in patients with tumors. Tumor antigens are proteins, glycoproteins, glycolipids, or carbohydrates expressed on the surface of tumor cells (Fig. ). They include both tumor-specific antigens restricted to tumor cells and tumor-associated antigens present on both tumor cells and normal cells. Tumor antigens can be exploited for both diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. Tumor antigens are the basis of most cancer vaccine strategies and other types of specific cancer immunotherapy. They are targeted by application of various approaches, and using the peptides containing the epitope(s) of a tumor antigen benefits form an standard and easy method to evoke anticancer immunity. Tumor antigen is an antigenic substance produced in tumor cells, i.e., it triggers an immune response in the antigens are useful tumor markers in identifying tumor cells with diagnostic tests and are potential candidates for use in cancer field of cancer immunology studies such topics.
The question of whether human tumors express antigens that can be recognized by the immune system has been answered with a resounding YES. Most were identified through spontaneous antitumor humoral and cellular immune responses found in cancer patients and include peptides, glycopeptides, phosphopeptides, viral peptides, and peptides resulting from common mutations in oncogenes and tumor. Furthermore, tumor-specific antigen-suppressive and-reactive CD4 + T cells co-exist in the tumor microenvironment and execute opposite roles in the regulation of antitumor immunity of CD8 + T cells. Despite exhibiting a dysfunctional phenotype, the TSA-reactive CD8 + TILs (i.e., PD-1 + Bio +) possess substantial capabilities to proliferate. The term “tumor antigen” has been given a new and much more precise definition as a result of important developments in immunology over the last decade, particularly in the area of antigen presentation and antigen recognition. For something to be a tumor antigen, it must be recognized by specific immune effector cells and/or antibodies and be produced by tumor cells. Identification of tumor-specific cell surface antigens has proven challenging, as the vast majority of tumor-associated antigens are also expressed in normal tissues. In mesothelioma, we identified a highly specific tumor cell surface antigen that can be targeted for therapy development. Mesothelioma is caused by malignant transformation of the mesothelium, is incurable, and can be categorized.